The engine is one of the most important systems that enables a motor vehicle to move. It also has several types. It also consists of various parts. Engines enable a vehicle to move with various energy materials.
What is an engine?
Engines are systems that convert electrical, gasoline, diesel and LPG energy materials into mechanical energy. In this way, they allow the vehicle to move.
Engines come in two types. These;
- Internal combustion engines
- External Combustion Engines
- Electric Motors
Internal combustion engines: It was developed by Christiaan Huygens and his assistant Denis Papin in 1673. Electric ignited and water cooled motors were developed by Etienne Lenoir in 1860.
Internal combustion engines are systems that use a mixture of air and fuel. This mixture is ignited in the fuel chamber. As a result, motion energy is produced. In addition, internal combustion engines have two different designs. These;
- Piston: It is the most common type of engine today. Pistons are placed at various points according to the number of cylinders of the engine. They work on a 4-stroke basis. Spark plugs are used for ignition in vehicles using gasoline and LPG. However, injectors are used in diesel vehicles.
- Rotary: It is not a preferred design very often. Because it has high fuel consumption and needs frequent maintenance. Rotary engines are engines with 4 strokes. It goes through the intake, compression, combustion and exhaust cycles.
External combustion engines: Combustion of the fuel used takes place outside the engine. The fuel burns, but the energy generated is transmitted to a different fluid. Then this fluid heats up and energy of motion is obtained. Steam engines have external combustion engines.
Electric Engines: Unlike internal combustion engines, they are engines that do not contain mechanical parts. They convert electromagnetic energy directly into motion energy. They are engines consisting of two main components. With this component; stator and rotor.
Parts of Internal Combustion Engine
The internal combustion engine has a very complex structure, but every part works in an orderly manner.
- Cylinder Block: It is the part that forms the main body. It ensures that engine parts such as cylinder and starter are held in a stable way. The top of the cylinder block is closed with a cover. It carries spark plugs and injectors on the cover.
- Piston: It is located in the spaces inside the cylinder block. They are also constantly moving parts. It also provides the necessary time.
- Piston Rod: These are the parts that allow the pistons to move. They transmit vertical power to the crankshaft.
- Crankshaft: The crankshaft, located between the engine parts, converts the vertical movement into circular rotational movement. It also provides the transmission of motion to the gear camshaft at the front end.
- Camshaft: Responsible for the timing of the piston valves. It provides movement with timing belt or chain. It is responsible for the smooth running of the cylinders in the engine.
- Valve: Valves consist of two different types. These; intake valve and exhaust valve. Intake valves allow gasoline and air to enter the cylinder in vehicles with gasoline or LPG. Its task in diesel engines is to allow air to enter the cylinder. Exhaust valves allow the gas formed as a result of combustion to be thrown out of the cylinder.
- Carburetor: It provides the mixing of gasoline and air in the form of steam in the amount desired by the driver.
- Air filter: It cleans the air taken into the engine. In this way, it keeps the engine clean.
- Manifold: Manifolds also have two different types as intake and exhaust. The intake manifold distributes the gasoline and air mixture in the carburetor to the cylinders. The exhaust manifold is; It ensures that the waste gases formed as a result of combustion are released into the exhaust pipe.
- Spark plug: These are the parts that ignite the compressed gasoline and air mixture in the combustion chamber.