In the second half of the 20th century, the hydraulic system began to be widely used in machine manufacturing and industrial applications. The reason for this is that it transmits forces and movements more easily and efficiently than friction systems. Today, this system is also frequently encountered in automobiles.

What is Hydraulic?

The word hydraulic is derived from the Latin word 'hydor' meaning water. This is because it is a branch of science that studies the mechanical properties of fluids. In this system, incompressible fluids are used. It provides the production of movements and forces with the help of the obtained pressurized fluid.

What is Hydraulic System?

This system consists of elements that operate a mechanism with the transmission of pressurized fluid power.

How Does the System Work?

The pump in the system absorbs the oil from the tank and sends it to the system with effective pressure. If the pressure is higher than the desired value, it returns to the tank. In this way, the system works safely. The oil is sent to the directional control valve by the pump. Then it is directed to user elements such as cylinder and engine. The related machine works thanks to the oil flow rate and pressure. The speed of the machine can be changed with the oil flow setting. At the same time, the flow / return paths of the oil are changed by the directional control valve in order to ensure the back and forth movement of the machine.

What Does a Hydraulic System Do?

Fluid substances are not compressible substances. In this way, large hydraulic systems provide great power. Since air and also gases are compressible materials, they are not preferred for generating large forces.

What Is The Hydraulic System Used For?

It is used to achieve high power density. It is a system used especially in mobile equipment such as excavators and presses. At the same time, this system is used for slope and brake control in wind turbines.

Usage Areas of Hydraulics

  • Energy production,
  • Hydraulic vehicles,
  • Industrial areas,
  • Maritime and shipping industry,
  • Mining

What are the Substances Used as Fluid in Systems?

These systems usually use water or oil. However, as it causes rust on metal surfaces, the usage area of water is very low. For this reason, mineral oils are often used as fluids.

Parts of the Hydraulic System

This system consists of several parts:

  • Indicators,
  • Accessories,
  • User Elements: Cylinder, Engine etc.
  • Valves
  • Pump
  • Tank Pipe - Hose - Fittings
  • Sealing Elements
  • Accumulators
  • Filters

Advantages of Hydraulic Systems

  • These systems are silent systems. Therefore, they do not create any disturbing noise.
  • The fluids used in the system cannot be compressed. In this way, they provide shock-free and vibration-free movement.
  • They allow precise speed adjustment.
  • Working pressures are at high levels. In this way, they allow the acquisition of great powers.
  • It is suitable for speed adjustment during movement.
  • Since hydraulic oil is used, it also provides lubrication of elements.
  • The safety valves in the system ensure the safe operation of the system.
  • The parts of the system are long-lasting.

Disadvantages of the System

  • The fluids used are sensitive to high temperature. Therefore, the fluid temperature should not exceed 50 degrees.
  • Friction resistance in fluids is quite high. Therefore, these fluids cannot be transported over long distances.
  • The connections of the elements used in the system must be solid and at the same time impermeable. Therefore, the prices are higher.
  • The storability of hydraulic power is low.
  • The flow rate of the fluids is low. Therefore, the circuit elements operate at low speed. Therefore, it is not possible to achieve high speed.
  • The fluids used are sensitive to air. If there is air in the fluid, it causes noise and vibration. It also makes it difficult to achieve regular speed.

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