In the second half of the 20th century, the hydraulic system began to be widely used in machine manufacturing and industrial applications. The reason for this is that it transmits forces and movements more easily and efficiently than friction systems. Today, this system is also frequently encountered in automobiles.
The word hydraulic is derived from the Latin word 'hydor' meaning water. This is because it is a branch of science that studies the mechanical properties of fluids. In this system, incompressible fluids are used. It provides the production of movements and forces with the help of the obtained pressurized fluid.
This system consists of elements that operate a mechanism with the transmission of pressurized fluid power.
The pump in the system absorbs the oil from the tank and sends it to the system with effective pressure. If the pressure is higher than the desired value, it returns to the tank. In this way, the system works safely. The oil is sent to the directional control valve by the pump. Then it is directed to user elements such as cylinder and engine. The related machine works thanks to the oil flow rate and pressure. The speed of the machine can be changed with the oil flow setting. At the same time, the flow / return paths of the oil are changed by the directional control valve in order to ensure the back and forth movement of the machine.
Fluid substances are not compressible substances. In this way, large hydraulic systems provide great power. Since air and also gases are compressible materials, they are not preferred for generating large forces.
It is used to achieve high power density. It is a system used especially in mobile equipment such as excavators and presses. At the same time, this system is used for slope and brake control in wind turbines.
These systems usually use water or oil. However, as it causes rust on metal surfaces, the usage area of water is very low. For this reason, mineral oils are often used as fluids.
This system consists of several parts: